Water vapour and carbon dioxide are examples of air pollution. Excessive concentration of some substances in rooms can cause discomfort and malaise of their users. Combinations of various pollutants cause for example headache, respiratory diseases, fatigue, allergies or cancer. That is why proper ventilation in buildings is so important. Ventilation is responsible for maintaining proper air quality. Its purpose is to remove contaminated air from rooms and to bring fresh air into the inside. It can also alternatively dilute airborne pollutants up to admissible values. Taking into account the fact that the air in rooms is constantly being polluted, ventilation is even necessary. It is also extremely important because its absence causes a side effect in the form of moisture. Steamed-up windows, moisture and fungus on walls - they are the effects of poorly selected ventilation.
Properly functioning ventilation in residential buildings is therefore:
The primary criterion for distribution of ventilation systems is the source of air movement. Room ventilation can occur, for example, in a natural way (gravity). Then, air movement is caused by natural factors such as temperature difference (air density inside and outside the building) and wind. The advantages of such ventilation are certainly low operating and investment costs (it does not require electricity), as well as space saving. Natural ventilation systems will work in rooms with a fireplace. The disadvantages, however, are that their effectiveness depends on atmospheric conditions and it is impossible to filter air in this case. In addition, this type of ventilation does not allow to recover heat from the exhausted air.
Ventilation systems can also operate mechanically (in a forced way). Then any air exchange is independent of any atmospheric factors. The air flow is forced by operating fans. The main advantage of mechanical ventilation is that it fulfils its role in every room, regardless of weather conditions.
Mechanical ventilation is mainly divided into supply (where air supply is carried out mechanically and the removal is natural), exhaust and supply/exhaust ones.
Exhaust (extract) ventilation:
Supply and exhaust ventilation:
One of the advantages of a mechanical ventilation system is the possibility to recover heat. This allows to save heat consumption used for heating and to improve the quality of air and comfort of users. Recuperation, or ventilation system with heat recovery, the main part of which is a device - a recuperator, which heats cool air from the outside with warm air that is removed from the interior. In the winter, cool air is heated and in the summer - cooled. The exhausted and contaminated air is removed through extract air grates and directed to the air handling unit, where, through the exhaust fan, the air is transported through the filter to the recuperator. In addition, the advantage of this type of ventilation system is the fact that recuperation reduces noise, drafts, prevents moisture in the rooms and effectively removes unpleasant odours as well as dust, carbon dioxide, water vapour and any other harmful substances.
Air inlet vents (passive air inlets, slot vents):
A very important element of mechanical ventilation systems are air handling units. Here is a place where number of air treatment processes, necessary to maintain the required parameters in the room, take place. There are for example fans and heaters used for heating air in air handling units. Furthermore, their important component are air filters that are used to clean the air. Their role is to stop pollutants that enter a building from the outside. Air handling units are often also called air-conditioning units. In this type of handling units a more complex air treatment takes place, i.e. its humidification or dehumidification.
No matter what kind of ventilation you choose, it is important to know which errors to avoid at installation.
In case of ventilation with heat recovery, it is important to remember that:
On the other hand, in case of gravity ventilation the following mistakes are made:
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